Transformativa lösningar och offentlig upphandling (Report)

Role: author

Summary
Denna text är en slutredovisning av arbetet med att analysera hur offentlig upphandling kan stödja innovation för hållbarhet som levererar transformativa lösningar.

Arbetet utgår från tre grundfrågor:

  • Hur kan innovation för hållbarhet ges bättre stöd inom befintligt regelverk för offentlig upphandlingen?

  • Hur kan myndighetsvärlden engagera olika delar av företagsvärlden i proaktiva

    samtal kring hur viktiga hållbarhetsproblem kan lösas?

  • Hur kan myndigheter via upphandlingen bli ”early adopters” och inte ”laggards” som håller utvecklingen tillbaka då det gäller användandet av transformativa hållbara lösningar?

    Metoden utifrån insamlat material och föreslår möjliga vägar framåt. Texten är baserad på textanalyser, intervjuer, två workshops, en enkät och ett pilotprojekt.

The procurement investigation (Swedish Government Official Reports 2013:12) has identified meetings and mobility as an area where there are many new opportunities and where the goals require transformative changes.1 The starting point for the procurement investigation was that the coming years will involve major changes for government agencies. Technological development, for example, provides entirely new opportunities in a range of areas, from virtual meetings to tools that make it easier to analyse the consequences of different choices. At the same time, the government and the EU's ambitious goals when it comes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions require transformative solutions.

The feasibility study indicates that the portal could contribute to more transformative solutions that can help government agencies to optimise their meetings and mobility. This could allow the government agencies to achieve their goals and reduce their costs by, among other things;

  1. That government agencies receive scientifically verified data when it comes to various environmental and economic consequences of the meetings.

  2. That government agencies can obtain customised information when they need it in the format they require.

  3. That the platform can connect to existing initiatives at the government agencies and build on existing systems for the collection of data enabling the platform to reduce the workload of the agencies.

  4. The platform makes it easier to develop strategies for an increased share of virtual meetings.

  5. Creating a better understanding of all the elements of an agency by allowing customised information to be generated can clarify the consequences of individual choices.

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Transformative Step of the Day during COP-17 (competition)

Role: Project coordinator

Summary
At COP17 in Durban, the Transformative Step of the Day initiative was launched in conjunction with the global climate negotiations to increase focus on transformative low-carbon solutions and how they can be supported in the process.

The purpose is to facilitate dialogue between policymakers and solution providers on how transformative solutions can be promoted in the climate negotiations and beyond.

This will support the goal that transformative low-carbon solutions are recognized in relevant parts of the climate negotiations, and that initiatives accelerating their uptake are recognized.

Government leaders and solution sectors will present concrete examples of transformative low-carbon solutions from around the world directly to the negotiators in order to demonstrate the need to support their accelerated uptake.

Short video from Christiana Figueres welcoming transformative step of the day

Short video from Georg Kell welcoming transformative step of the day

Short video from Achim Steiner welcoming transformative step of the day

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Norway and global leadership in the 21st Century: Supporting transformative low carbon ICT solutions (Report)

Role: authour

Summary
Main conclusions regarding Norway’s domestic situation:
+      World-class connectivity.
+      IT interested population.
+      Well functioning communication between ministries and sectors.
+      World leading use and development of many low-carbon ICT solutions.
+      Vision of a zero carbon and innovative future.
+      “Leading” in many macro trends, such as ICT literacy, aging, understanding of the need to shift from a natural resource based economy to a service economy.

-       Focus almost exclusively on the supply-side when it comes to low-carbon solutions, with additional focus on incremental improvements within existing systems. Very little focus on transformative solutions that can be used by 9 billion people, i.e. the future we are heading towards.
-       While there is a broad agreement on the need to move towards a zero carbon future with transformative solutions, few concrete work plans exist to implement such solutions.
-       While communication is well functioning and friendly between ministries actual collaboration around transformative projects is often lacking, making transformative solutions that require cross sectorial/ministry collaboration difficult to implement.  Instead much of the focus is on incremental improvements within current areas of responsibility.
-       The policies and targets for climate change and CO2 reductions still focus on addressing problems, not creating solutions.
-       There is lack of clarity in terms of where the responsibility lies for low-carbon ICT support or transformative solutions as this is spread over a number of ministries. Ministries responsible for different ICT aspects have an understanding of the potential, but the Ministry of Environment has not moved beyond “sector by sector” and problem oriented approaches, and current goals are focusing on incremental CO2 reductions.

Much of the above could change fast, for example in the fall of 2011 when a new climate policy for Norway might be presented, but today there is a rapidly growing tension in Norway between “the first-generation of environmentalism” and what could be described as an emerging “second-generation of environmentalism”.  

The first-generation identified problems, especially polluting companies, and tried to address the problem through incremental improvements within existing systems and through end-of-pipe solutions using a national perspective. The second-generation focuses on transformative solutions, especially solution clusters, with new and innovative ways of providing services. The perspective of the second-generation of environmentalism is global and the definition of sustainable is that the service can be provided in a sustainable way for nine billion people. The second-generation thus represents a shift away from incremental solutions within existing unsustainable systems.

The first generation is institutionalized though the bodies responsible for “environmental issues”. While many working with the first-generation of environmentalism intellectually understand the need for a shift towards a new approach and frequently arrange seminars, produce reports, etc about the second-generation of environmentalism, the focus (including targets and capacity) is almost exclusively on incremental CO2 reductions within existing sectors with a national focus.

Norway can be described as a world leader in the first-generation of environmentalism. This leadership seems to have resulted in a situation where those in charge of “environmental” issues are intellectually grasping the need for a new approach, but the structures, traditions, mandate, etc push them back to a first-generation approach.

Norway has great potential to become a world leader in the second-generation of environmentalism, building on many interesting initiatives. The challenges should however not be underestimated and Norway needs to think in terms of leapfrogging and making significant changes in the current organizational structures in order to be able to play a relevant international role in the second-generation of environmentalism.

Instead of a better car, the focus is on smart working, resulting in promotion of teleworking. Instead of better airplanes the focus is on smart meetings, resulting in promotion of videoconferencing. Instead of better paper production the focus is on smart reading, resulting in e-books. Instead of CCS the focus is on smart buildings that provide lighting, a comfortable temperature, etc while being net producers of renewable energy at the same time.


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Transformative transparency (Report)

Role: Author

Summary
Transformative transparency occurs at the threshold point at which massive amounts of data on goods, services, or even individuals, can be accessed instantly, in ways that allow users, or programs, to make decisions and provide immediate feed-back.

At such a point, an interactive “reality search engine,” i.e, a situation in which objects and events in reality, not words or sentences on the web, are processed, becomes possible.

This requires an infrastructure with high connectivity and a critical mass of users who engage with this information. The current situation with smart phones and connected devices indicates that we have just arrived at this point.

Full report here

 

Guadalajara ICT Declaration for Transformative Low-Carbon Solutions (Declaration)

Role: Project leader

Summary
To date the principal focus of the global climate change negotiations has been on the initial CO2 emission reduction targets as agreed under the Kyoto Protocol, about 5% reductions.

Recent evidence shows it is now time to shift focus on piece- meal carbon emission problems to focus on solutions that can help to avoid emissions all together, or that can deliver signi - cant reductions such as 30% or more by 2020.

In order to deliver on the promise of such transformative emis- sion reductions, more engagement of strategic private sector innovation and technology is critical, as is supporting govern- ment planning and policies.

The undersigned believe that COP16 in Cancun can be a turning point in the global climate change negotiations by initiating a dedicated work stream for low carbon ICT and increasingly broadband solutions to play a transformative role in decreasing global emissions.

The ICT sector is fully committed to do its part in furthering this agenda, and actively engaging with governments and negotiators going forward.

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Assessment of Global Low-Carbon and Environmental Leadership in the ICT Sector (Report)

Role: author with Simon Mingay

Summary

The information and communication technology (ICT) industry and its individual providers are at an important juncture. Are they really going to commit themselves to the necessary investments to develop low-carbon and environmental solutions during a period when, with some exceptions (such as energy-efficient ICT equipment, intelligent buildings and smart grids), the markets for any such solutions are at best emerging? We look at which providers are placing their bets and developing the capabilities that will make them effective innovation partners for enterprises and give them platforms for leadership in a low-carbon and more sustainable economy.

Key Findings

During 2009 and 2010, there has been rapid progress in the maturity of ICT vendors in terms of their internal environmental programs and in terms of the development of a set of low-carbon market offerings. The dominance of talking in 2008 has evolved into a lot more action in 2010 in terms of suitable products, services development and policy- related activity.

We now have a clear group of market makers (BT, IBM, Cisco, Ericsson, HP, Fujitsu and SAP) that we believe are beginning to build distinguishing capabilities.

The 2008 leaders, such as IBM, BT, Ericsson, Fujitsu and HP, have maintained their relatively strong positions with good, well-rounded low-carbon and environmental programs, improving their own internal performance, and developing market-facing solutions ranging from more-energy-efficient ICT equipment and mobile phone networks, through logistics and transportation, to solutions that enable smart grids.

Aside from the important task of making ICT equipment more energy efficient, and a couple of particularly hot areas such as smart grids, developing solutions for a low- carbon economy is definitely not yet "core business."

With a couple of exceptions, the industry is hobbled by the short-term incremental sustainability-related goals that it is setting for itself, rather than setting more- challenging, longer-term goals that could result in transformative solutions.

There are limited signs of disruptive innovation, and more of a focus on incrementalism.

The industry is fearful of committing its weight to influencing national and international climate change and sustainability policy; rather, it is standing on the sidelines as a cheerleader.

© 2010 Gartner, Inc. and/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction and distribution of this publication in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Gartner disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Although Gartner's research may discuss legal issues related to the information technology business, Gartner does not provide legal advice or services and its research should not be construed or used as such. Gartner shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or for interpretations thereof. The opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.

The industry no longer predominantly sees climate change and sustainability as a risk, but sees it as an emerging opportunity.

Service and software providers have improved their positions from 2008, but remain relatively immature in terms of their internal programs and their market offerings. SAP would stand out as a relatively strong performer with big improvements in its internal programs, transparency, product development and road map.

Management of the environmental performance of the supply chain remains an area of significant differentiation, demanding much higher standards from everyone if the ICT industry is to credibly defend its position as a climate leader.

ICT providers in Asia (not Japan) are still lagging overall, but we have seen some dramatic improvements, and we would anticipate that continuing.

IT organizations still need to pay close attention to the balanced nature of the programs from IT providers, covering all areas of influence from direct, indirect and policy issues. We still see plenty of examples of providers with significant gaps in their programs.

Interindustry partnerships are starting to emerge, particularly from the leaders. For example, IBM and Johnson Controls developing intelligent building solutions. These partnerships are a very significant and important step in the ability of ICTs to develop commercially viable solutions for a low-carbon economy.

While the recent Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) and Boston Consulting Group (BCG) report outlining a high-level methodology for measuring the enabling effects of ICT related to the climate is a good step forward, the industry has so far only made a limited attempt at measuring the environmental benefits of its solutions, and has made no attempt at all to understand their systemic and rebound impacts. (That is, the indirect and frequently unforeseen change in behaviors, consumption patterns and so on, resulting from the introduction of new technologies, policy measures, etc.)

The industry continues to bask in the afterglow of the Smart 2020 report (www.smart2020.org), when it should really be moving that thinking forward at a much faster pace.

Link to report

Transformative Solution Leadership - 12 illustrative transformative low-carbon solutions (Report)

Role: Director and author

Summary
This report presents twelve illustrative transformative low-carbon solutions. Together these solutions have already contributed to hundreds of millions of tonnes of avoided CO2 emissions - a rough estimate for the solutions where data exist indicates that these solutions helped eliminate more than 600 million tonnes of climate pollution in 2009. These solutions have the potential to help eliminate thousands of mil- lions of tonnes over the next decade — a conservative estimate indicates that they could help society avoid a cumulative 10-20 gigatonnes CO2 emissions by 2020.

These numbers are impressive, but the real potential contained in these illustrative solutions is the capacity to contribute to a broader shift in society, a shift to
a focus on companies as solution providers and to a focus on transformative solutions. The principles these solutions illustrate can help unlock innovation and trigger the paradigm shift in society necessary to deliver the kind of reductions needed to avoid dangerous climate change, while also helping to eradicate poverty and helping to ensure biodiversity and energy security. There are many other solutions, and there are vast numbers of solution providers out there. As these solution providers often come from di erent sectors, policy makers at the local, national, or inter- national level seldom get a coherent message about the potential for transformative solutions.

This report serves to:

  • Demonstrate that transformative low-carbon solutions already exist and that these solutions can play a key role in global CO2 reductions.
  • Emphasize that policies are needed to acceleratethe uptake of transformative low-carbon solutions and that a mindset shift is needed, from “how to reduce problems” to “how to support solutions.”
  • Illustrate the need to develop a standardized method to calculate and report CO2 savings from transformative solutions.

 

Transformative Calculations: Calculating the impacts of transformative low-carbon solutions (Report)

Role: Lead author

Summary: 
This paper provides a brief overview of the possibilities for calculating and reporting a company’s positive contributions to societal emissions reductions.

Over the last few years, discussions and strategies have shifted from an exclusive focus on big emitters and the need to reduce emissions by improving existing systems, to also focus on providers of low-carbon solutions and transformative change whereby services are provided in totally new ways (such as modal shifts and dematerialization).

As a consequence the need for new reporting that can capture contributions from companies that provide solutions has emerged. The terminology is still under development, and the concepts are working names that have been used in the discussion related to the GHG-protocol and other systems for calculating emission reductions:

Total emissions approach: A focus on the total impact, both posi- tive and negative

Climate Positive: A company that helps reduce more emissions in society than it emits over the whole value chain, Scope 1-3

Low-carbon market opportunities: The emissions that a company can contribute to reducing in society through the use of the products/ services and that are outside Scope 1-3

Link to report

转型解决方案, 创造低碳未来 (leaflet)

Role: Project leader

Summary
在当前应对气候变化的战斗中 在现有体系中采用渐进式的改进方法显然是效果不佳。 幸运的是,现今越来越多的公司采用转型解决方案。 他们把建设一个低碳型经济体制看作企业的商机,而非威胁。 这些解决方案值得我们重视。

 

The revolution from pre-Kyoto to post-Copenhagen (Article)

Role: author

Summary
To understand the current situation and the opportunities ahead, it is important to understand the different approaches companies have to take for a low carbon development and what kind of behaviour that different organisations and incentive structures promote.

Four different levels of innovation can be identified, see Figure 4. The first level of low carbon innovation is when focus is on incremental improvements that reduce the company’s own problems. This is where most of the attention has been focused by policy makers, NGOs and businesses themselves. The reason for the focus is twofold: it is easily noticeable and understandable. When emissions are

discussed, people usually think about a coal power plant or just a chimney with smoke coming out. This focus makes sense for big polluters and only if incremental changes are needed.

The second level, which has got a lot of attention today, is incremental reductions through out the value chain, including all suppliers, starting from the extraction of material from nature and then also looking at the use-phase & end-use of the products. For most companies which are not the major emitters, it is in these parts where the majority of the emissions exist. Among IT companies, retailers, biotech companies and the manufacturing companies, up to 98% of the emissions cannot necessarily be associated with their own direct impact.

Still it is common for companies to aim for “climate neutral” and offset the emissions as they focus on level 1. This is a reason why offsetting might be one of the worst innovation killers today, keeping the companies on innovation level 1.

The third level is when the company acknowledge that the way they produce

things is not sustainable and instead of trying to improve unsustainable production methods, it develops solutions that become part of the solution. This can be a manufacturer of furniture that becomes a net producer of sustainable bio-energy, or a car manufacturer who builds so many wind power mills as it constructs its manufacturing plant & becomes a net producer to ensure that it puts more renewable energy on the grid than used.

The fourth level, and the most important level for the 21st century, is when the company starts to focus on what it is providing to society through its products and services. The question on this level is if the services the company provides are helping people getting a better life while helping to reduce emissions society2 then obviously the other levels are needed as well. But unless we get more companies to focus on how their core business is contributing to a low carbon economy, it will be impossible to reach the reductions needed.

Some people are afraid that focus on the core business, and solutions that company provides that can help reduce emissions in society, will distract them from the need to reduce their internal emissions. Looking at the companies that have begun to explore this area are almost leading in level 1-3 as well. Probably, because the companies that link low carbon development to their core business, requires a commitment from the CEO and the board. And if one wants to be the company that helps the customers towards a low carbon economy, it is not credible if the company has its own emissions. If anything is true, it is probably that many of the current initiatives that focus on internal emissions are distracting from effort on the higher innovation levels and not the other way around.

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From Workplace to Anyplace: Assessing the Opportunities to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions With Virtual Meetings and Telecommuting (Report)

Role: Co-author with Marco Muttazzoni, Andrea Rossi and Suzanne Pahlman

Summary
This report focuses on the opportunities to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in work-related contexts, thanks to the deployment of IT solutions that enable one or more individuals to work or collaborate remotely. In particular the report analyzes the potential associated with teleworking and virtual meetings to reduce carbon emissions from daily commuting by car and business air travel, and the conditions under which such potential could be realized. The goal of the report is to gain an understanding of the scale of the opportunities available while identifying the key drivers that may enable or hinder the full achievement of such opportunities. By analyzing different trajectories of possible future developments, this report provides insight into a future in which maximum GHG emission reductions could be achieved.

The premise for the analysis is that IT is best seen as a catalyst that can either be used in ways that reduce our environmental footprint or can be deployed within systems that ultimately result in an increased environmental footprint. Because the policy and economic environment in which IT technology is deployed largely determines its net impact on GHG emissions, this report outlines four scenarios for possible future developments, characterized by different roles and attitudes in policy makers and IT industry

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The Day Technology Saved the Planet Transformative Solutions in a Time of Crisis (article) in Technology in a Cold Climate

Role: Author 

The Project
Technology in a Cold Climate aims to engender a greater understanding among the technology sector and policy makers about the role that technologies could play in meeting the UK’s ambitions and challenges.

Summary
A revolutionary transformation of society based on new technology would allow the UK to take the lead towards a sustainable economy. This transformation would fundamentally change how the economy works and how many resources are used and in what ways, while most of the physical infrastructure would look almost identical to what is around us today.

Such a revolution is required by the “perfect storm” that increased pressure on the planetʼs resources will create, and enabled by accelerated technological developments. Approached in a strategic way, these converging trends can be directed to spur innovation and creativity on
a level that humanity has never seen before.

Instead of trying to identify specific solutions that could provide sustainable solutions, we should look to support clusters that are likely to trigger a multitude of changes. For a sustainable future three ICT clusters are particularly important:

1. Connectivity: ensuring a 21st century communication infrastructure
2. Miniaturisation: enabling ubiquitous computing (ubicomp)
3. Integration: facilitating the emergence of augmented reality (AR)

Link to full article

Link to Technology in a Cold Climate

Assessment of Global Low-Carbon and Environmental Leadership in the ICT Sector (Report)

Role: author with Simon Mingay

Summary
With increased pressure to reduce carbon emissions, enterprises are approaching this new situation in very different ways. Some are still struggling to assess their own business environmental and climate impact. Other enterprises approach the need to reduce carbon emissions among customers as an opportunity to move beyond their relatively smaller direct impact and also focus on the opportunity that low-carbon ICT services can provide. The difference in how companies approach the need for a low- carbon economy is creating a new corporate landscape where new winners and losers will emerge and where ICT customers must learn to navigate. This is an assessment of 24 of the industry's world-leading providers and an analysis of where the ICT industry is today in relation to its maturity in mitigating environmental risks and exploiting the opportunities that the need for reduced carbon emissions will create.

Key Findings

  • 2008 has seen the emergence of some low-carbon "leaders" in the ICT industry. They are just starting to wake up to the risks and opportunities of climate change, and move beyond pushing a more energy-efficient device. However, on the whole, the industry has been sleepwalking toward a low-carbon economy. 2009 will see rapid progress.

  • There is frequently more talking than there is action on behalf of the ICT providers. The results show those who need to make significant steps forward if their actions are to match their marketing.

  • Some of the "self-professed" leaders in environmental performance have some significant weaknesses in their programs.

  • Most providers still view "the environment" and "climate change" as a risk rather than as an opportunity.

  • Most ICT technology providers have outsourced most, if not all, manufacturing. So looking at the vendors' performance is looking at the tip of the iceberg — which is further compounded by most of those vendors only looking at the environmental performance of their Tier 1 suppliers.

  • Service organizations are quite immature in their environmental programs and their innovation for a low-carbon economy.

  • There is a lack of interindustry partnerships to create innovative solutions to tackle high- carbon areas of the economy.

    © 2008 Gartner, Inc. and/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction and distribution of this publication in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Gartner disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Although Gartner's research may discuss legal issues related to the information technology business, Gartner does not provide legal advice or services and its research should not be construed or used as such. Gartner shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or for interpretations thereof. The opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.

  • The vendors from Asia (not Japan) are still lagging behind but some have begun to put comprehensive programs in place, and it is likely that they will move rapidly to the front in this area, driven by the urgent needs for low-carbon solutions in their domestic markets.

  • Fifteen of the 24 providers invited to participate did so, which is a good level of commitment from the industry. However, nine providers chose not to participate. With one exception, we believe that reflects their immaturity in environmental and low-carbon leadership.

  • This is a rapidly changing area.

Link to report

Indian Companies with Solutions that the World Needs (Report)

Role: Co-author with Sachin Joshi, Seema Arora and  Shirish Sinha

Summary
This report, ‘Indian Companies with the solutions that the World Needs’, builds on the previous report “Indian Companies in the 21st Century” by WWF and explores in a more detailed manner how some companies in India are understanding and responding to changing sustainability trends through innovation and business strategy.1

The five in-depth case studies and two examples in this report include companies from diverse economic sectors that have varied economic, social and environmental concerns and impacts. Nevertheless, they contain some common threads and lessons that can be applied in different contexts. The case studies capture key initiatives and identify important ways in which sustainability has affected the drivers of business competitiveness and success: access to markets, operational efficiency, access to capital or superior reputation, and most importantly innovation.

Recent years have seen a growing range of economic, social, environmental and governance issues push into the mainstream of politics and business. The priorities for action emerging from a range of summit meetings - such as the G8 and the World Economic Forum - tend to share one common characteristic: they all relate to current market failures or dysfunctions.

While most sustainability challenges – such as income disparity, loss of biodiversity and assosiated impacts - are not new; globalisation has directly or indirectly exacerbated many problems to a degree where many of these questions are now dealt with as matters of global and national security, e.g. climate change and food prices. Information technology is propelling increased awareness about the scope of societal needs and the lack of progress to date by governments and traditional non-governmental organisations. Businesses, civil society and governments, once considered strange bed-fellows, are now working together to resolve some of the most chronic problems.

This trend was implicit in the 2008 agenda of the World Economic Forum annual meeting at Davos, which closed with a call by business, government and civil society leaders for a new brand of collaborative and innovative leaders to address the challenges of globalisation, particularly the pressing problems of conflict, terrorism, climate change and water conservation.2

Business, political and civil society leaders at the World Economic Forum’s India Economic Summit 2007, called on India to focus on skills development, improving governance, upgrading of education, forging public- private partnerships in infrastructure and addressing environmental degradation and water scarcity to sustain the high growth the country requires.

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保定/Baoding: A global “Electric Valley” for sustainable energy production? (Report)

Baoding.jpg

Role: author with Rasmus Reinvang, Chen Dongmei, Stefan Henningsson, Hongpeng Lei, Li Junfeng, Ma Lingjuan, Liu Minglian, and Wang Ying

Comment
This is the simple version that does not look into the future and estimate the significant potential for Baoding to contribute to global GHG reduction from export of smart solutions. What is interesting is that these very significant contributions were still an underestimation. Still today Baoding is one of the few cities in the world that have estimated their global climate contribution though export of low-carbon solutions.  

Summary

China is the factory of the world providing us with a large variety of products at an affordable price. Lowering prices on renewable energy and energy efficiency products is also a key issue in our battle to mitigate climate change.

Baoding is recognized by the Chinese Government as a first and only industrial base for development of China’s new energy sector. The world needs a dramatic increase in renewable energy if we are to be able to secure a sustainable energy supply for the global economy and avoid dangerous climate change. Baoding is therefore a key to global sustainable development.

This is an introduction to Baoding providing an overview of Baoding’s rapid development, potential future role, some preliminary results and assessments, as background for a visit to Baoding by China Council (CCICED) and OECD embassies in Beijing.

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Creating the First Sustainable Innovation Zone: SIZ (Leaflet)

Role: Project supervisor

Summary
The Sustainable Innovation Zone, SIZ, is an internal HP web portal engaging employees to share ideas on ICT applications that can help reduce CO2 emissions. Rather than focusing on how HP can reduce its own environmen- tal impact, the SIZ focuses on how HP can help custo- mers reduce their carbon footprint by using HP solutions.

The SIZ promotes ICT applications that signi cantly reduce CO2 emissions, the use of resources and improve service quality.

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Re-think China's Outward Investment Flows (Report)

Role: Co-author with Baijin Long

Summary
Two hundred years ago, China was the largest economy on earth, and in a few decades, the country will most certainly reclaim that position. There can therefore be little doubt that the future of China will shape the global economy; the question is, in what direction?

This report sets out to examine one of the greatest challenges in the 21st century, namely, how to combine global economic development and a sustainable use of natural resources.

The objective is to encourage a constructive discussion regarding the rapidly increasing outward investment flows from China, from a global sustainability perspective. The report explores the roles of the different actors involved and the manner in which the underlying trends driving this outward investment can be directed to ensure sustainable resource use.

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Arab Companies in the 21st Century (Report)

Role: Co-author with Tareq Emtairah and Suzanne Påhlman

Summary
The study, undertaken in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), is inspired by a series of initiatives undertaken by WWF with an intention to identify and to work with various proactive key players in emerging economies of the world like India,

China, Russia, Brazil and South Africa. This study focuses on the scope and potential for companies in the UAE and the rest of the Arab world to emerge as leaders in investment and export of sustainable goods and services, as well as becoming a key international actor in promoting and supporting sustainable development.

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Indian Companies in the 21st Century (Report)

Role: Co-author with Mohmmed Saqib and Rajesh Sehgal

Summary
In a situation where the world requires innovative companies to address
the serious global challenges faced by humanity, including high resource consumption, pollution, population growth, demographic and geopolitical changes, India, with its rapidly changing business environment, may indeed prove to be one of the most important countries on the planet over the next several decades.5

This report shows that there exists significant interest within the Indian business sector in sustainable development and innovative solutions that can be applied to achieve this goal. The approaches utilised in this regard by lead- ers in the Indian corporate sector are well ahead of many of their western counterparts, which are often, and often erroneously, viewed as leaders in the eld of corporate social responsibility (CSR). A number of common denominators exist within the progressive approach of these Indian companies, and these have been collectively referred to by one Indian company as “third generation CSR”.

This third generation CSR is an approach where companies look to ensure that their core businesses deliver sustainable development results. This dif- fers from the rst generation of CSR, that looked at philanthropy as one way of using pro ts, and the second generation that was searching for ways of minimizing the negative impacts of the companies’ operations.

The most important element of the third generation CSR is that it examines the core activities of a company and determines means by which the company can evolve in order to ensure that it contributes to welfare, even if this does not translate into immediate returns. This approach means that environmental and social concerns are the starting point for the business activity, as opposed to being factored in at the end. Rather than compromising on pro t, companies provide information that allows government to proactively change business regulations in order to reward companies which deliver on social and environ- mental objectives, such as reducing the use of natural resources.

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Chinese Companies in the 21st Century (Report)

Chinas.jpg

Role: Co-author with Peng Lei and Baijin Long

Summary
This report is based on a survey of 182 of the largest and most important Chinese companies. WWF would like to highlight the following summarized results and outline possible steps forward.

1. A significant minority (22%) of Chinese companies say they are going beyond current regulation and some (13%) are even suggesting tougher rules. Many of these companies also have concrete suggestions that could help China become a leader in the provision of sustainable goods and serv- ices, not only in China but also for the rest of the world, and thereby move beyond the existing CSR discussion.

2. While one group of companies takes environmental issues seriously and is proactive, a large group could be described as almost hostile to environ- mental issues and do not even want to engage in discussions. 39% of respondents said “many” or “very many” Chinese companies were breaking the law, and 57% said companies were trying to lower standards.

3. There is a need to develop domestic solutions that support export of prod- ucts and services that help the environment, according to 78% of the com- panies surveyed.

4. 85% think traditional Chinese philosophical concepts like “union of nature and man” could help both Chinese and foreign companies become more environmentally friendly. 96% thought that the “circular economy”, a modern concept used widely in China today, also could be of help.

5. 85% of the companies said there is a need for stronger rules for environ- mental reporting, transparency and monitoring for large companies. Only 2% said there wasn’t and 13% said they didn’t know.

6. 53% said they would be willing to engage with NGOs like WWF in discus- sion about how sustainable development can be promoted, even though NGOs are not yet key actors in China and for many Chinese companies the idea of policy work with NGOs is new.

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